When a joint is taken beyond it normal range of motion with excessive force, ligaments can become sprained. Symptoms of an ankle ligament injury are acute pain at time of the injury, swelling, tenderness, bruising and pain on standing. In minor sprains, it is often possible to ‘run through’ this initial pain and continue the game.
Although this is common amongst tennis players, it is seen in golfers and many other racquet sports. It is also very common in certain manual occupations and other leisure activities. This is an overuse injury at the site where the muscles in the fore arm which extend the wrist are attached at the elbow.
Pain on the front of the leg coming on after exercise, often taking longer to disappear at rest, may be due to the muscle swelling that always occurs with exercise distending the fairly rigid compartment in which it is contained. If you ignore it, it will progress and become chronic.
Stress fractures (also called fatigue or insufficiency fractures) occur most frequently as a result of repeated loading of the skeleton over a long period of time and are probably preceded by periostitis. About 20-25 per cent of stress fractures occur in the fibula, the tibia and metatarsal bones. The calcaneus, navicula, femur, humerus, pelvis and vertebrae are affected less frequently.
The majority of cases of back pain in the athlete are due to muscle strain which typically come on during or after sport. Pain is felt in the back, often to one side, and there is stiffness and some loss of mobility. If pain come on acutely and is felt in the buttock and or the leg, or if there is any numbness, pins and needles or weakness in the leg then a slipped disc (disc prolapse) should be suspected.
Muscle pulls and strains happen most frequently in the first or last few minutes of a sports event either because the muscle is not warmed up and stretching properly or because of fatigue and the loss of control and overstretching. Bruises generally result from contact with other players or with a hard surface.
A directed blow to the bulky muscles on front and outer side of the thigh (quadriceps muscle) can be painful and very disabling. A kick or knee during contact sports is a frequent cause. The resulting bruise on the muscle can cause swelling and marked weakness, with the player often limping for several days.
The term repetitive strain injury (RSI) is used to describe a range of painful conditions of the muscles, tendons and other soft tissues. It is mainly caused by repetitive use of part of the body. It is usually related to a job or occupation, but leisure activities can also be a cause.
When an athlete falls, he instinctively lifts his arm and turns it outwards to protect his body. Dislocation can occur when the arm, held in this position, receives the impact of the fall. Anterior dislocation of the shoulder joint, caused by extensive injuries to the soft tissues surrounding the shoulder joint.
An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of the contents of the abdomen through the peritoneum resulting from a weakness of the muscles and connective tissues layers of the abdominal wall. Of all hernias, 80 per cent are inguinal (groin region), and appear as swellings at some point along the inner half of a line between the pubic tubercle and anterior superior iliac crest.